The rise in blood pressure causes a pounding headache
The heart rate slows
There is a flushing and redness of the skin above the level of the spinal cord injury where the blood vessels are widened
The skin is cold below the level of the injury, where the blood vessels remain narrow
The body’s response to the rise in blood pressure can cause profuse sweating, goosebumps, nausea, nasal congestion, blurred vision, shortness of breath, and anxiety or a sense of apprehension
Some or all of the symptoms may be present
Causes Of Autonomic Dysreflexia
Episodes of AD can be triggered by many potential causes. Any painful or irritating stimulus below the level of the injury can cause an episode of AD. However, bladder problems are by far the most common cause, followed by bowel impaction.
The following events or conditions are some things that can cause episodes of AD.
Urinary tract infection
Bladder calculi (stones)
Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia
Epididymitis or scrotal compression
Invasive surgery or procedures
Gastric ulcers or gastritis
Pregnancy, especially labour and delivery
Burns or sunburn
Fractures or other trauma
In fact, anything that causes pain or irritation below the level of the spinal cord lesion.